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In economics a trade-off is expressed in terms of the opportunity cost of a particular choice, which is the loss of the most preferred alternative given up. A tradeoff, then, involves a sacrifice that must be made to obtain a certain product, service or experience, rather than others that could be made or obtained using the same required resources. For example, for a person going to a basketball game, their opportunity cost is the loss of the alternative of watching a particular television program at home.

Many factors affect the tradeoff environment within a particular country, including availability of raw materials, a skilled labor force, machinery for producing a product, technology and capital, market rate to produce that product on reasonable time scale, and so forth.

A trade-off in economics is often illustrated graphically by a Pareto frontier named after the economist Vilfredo Pareto , which shows the greatest or least amount of one thing that can be attained for each of various given amounts of the other. As an example, in production theory the trade-off between output of one good and output of another is illustrated graphically by the production possibilities frontier.

Trade-off strategies in engineering design

The Pareto frontier is also used in multi-objective optimization. In finance , the capital asset pricing model includes an efficient frontier that shows the highest level of expected return that any portfolio could have given any particular level of risk, as measured by the variance of portfolio return. In biology and microbiology , tradeoffs occur when a beneficial change in one trait is linked to a detrimental change in another trait.

In demography , tradeoff examples may include maturity, fecundity , parental care, parity , senescence , and mate choice. For example, the higher the fecundity number of offspring , the lower the parental care that each offspring will receive.

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Parental care as a function of fecundity would show a negative sloped linear graph. A related phenomenon, known as demographic compensation, arises when the different components of species life cycles survival, growth, fecundity, etc show negative correlations across the distribution ranges [7] [8]. For example, survival may be higher towards the northern edge of the distribution, while fecundity or growth increases towards the south, leading to a compensation that allows the species to persist along an environmental gradient.

Contrasting trends in life cycle components may arise through tradeoffs in resource allocation , but also through independent but opposite responses to environmental conditions. Tradeoffs are important in engineering. Similarly, tradeoffs are used to maximise power efficiency in medical devices whilst guaranteeing the required measurement quality [9].

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In computer science , tradeoffs are viewed as a tool of the trade. A program can often run faster if it uses more memory a space—time tradeoff. Consider the following examples:. Strategy board games often involve tradeoffs: for example, in chess you might trade a pawn for an improved position.

What is TRADE-OFF? What does TRADE-OFF mean? TRADE-OFF meaning, definition & explanation

In a worst-case scenario, a chess player might even tradeoff the loss of a valuable piece even the Queen to protect the King. In Go , you might trade thickness for influence. Ethics often involves competing interests that must be traded off against each other, such as the interests of different people, or different principles e.

In medicine , patients and physicians are often faced with difficult decisions involving tradeoffs. One example is localized prostate cancer where patients need to weigh the possibility of a prolonged life expectancy against possible stressful or unpleasant treatment side-effects patient trade-off. Governmental tradeoffs are among the most controversial political and social difficulties of any time.

{PDF} A. Terry Bahill & Azad M. Madni - Tradeoff Decisions in System Design {eBook}

All of politics can be viewed as a series of tradeoffs based upon which core values are most core to the most people or politicians. Political campaigns also involve tradeoffs, as when attack ads may energize the political base but alienate undecided voters. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Quick guide: Tradeoffs. Current Biology RR Ecology Letters. Aguilar Pelaez et al. Categories : Decision-making. Finally, it shows a dozen examples of mental mistakes that might be made while creating trade-off studies and risk analyses. The methods and processes presented in this chapter are those that are commonly used in requirements discovery, trade-off studies, and risk analyses.

Tradeoff Decisions in System Design - Semantic Scholar

We replaced synonyms and then found that these seemingly disparate processes turned out to be the same. Customer dissatisfaction, cost overruns, and schedule slippage are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process.


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This section provides an overview of the system requirements process, and explains types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this section shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover requirements. In addition, it explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and different types of design reviews. Finally, it shows how requirements can be derived directly from the use cases.

Trade-off studies are a part of decision analysis and resolution DAR.

We had three approaches when facing a problem at Fairy:

When the decision is one of selecting the preferred alternatives from amongst many alternatives, and the alternatives are to be examined in parallel, then the problem is amenable to a trade-off study. Trade-off studies address a range of problems from selecting high-level system architecture to selecting commercial off-the-shelf hardware or software. Trade-off studies are typical outputs of formal evaluation processes, such as DAR. Nevertheless, even if the mathematics and utility curves are done correctly, care still needs to be exercised in doing a trade-off study, because it is difficult to overcome mental mistakes.

This chapter will discuss mental mistakes in trade-off studies and offer suggestions for ameliorating their occurrence. Risk is an expression of the potential harm or loss associated with an activity executed in an uncertain environment. This chapter presents a simple example of a risk analysis of a Pinewood Derby.

Then it presents a longer example of assessing the risk of incorporating photovoltaic solar panels into an existing electric power grid. Throughout, it shows common mistakes that are often made while doing risk analyses, such as using unequal ranges for the frequency of occurrence and the severity of consequences. The first three chapters of this book described the system design process, human decision-making, and technical processes that are commonly used in a wide variety of fields.

The next three chapters described and discussed three specific applications of these processes i. Title Tradeoff Decisions in System Design.