If a few individual countries are analyzed during the , it is possible to note that:. Ireland, Greece and Spain remain relatively immune to the recession, with more favorable rates, though lower than those obtained during expansion except for Greece, where the rates are now higher. After those, there are France and Sweden and, after, those countries where recession is intense and persistent: Germany, Holland, Portugal, Austria, Belgium, Denmark and Italy, with average growth rates that reflect situations of stagnation, especially in the first three countries.
Alongside the data presented by the author, Eurostat presents a few employment figures by country in subsequent years. However, there was a decrease in employment figures in other European countries in these years. However, the end of the first decade of the 21st century was marked by the international economic crisis which affected most European countries in a more intense way and has reverberated, more or less, on a few countries to present days.
However, the crisis joins other facts that had been happening previously, namely the process of modification of the capitalist productive process, the internalization of capital, social inequality, the deterioration of public policies by the State on education, health and housing, for example. In this context, as presented previously, several European Community countries have been facing challenges towards growth and work offer.
The crisis in teacher education: a European concern? [book review] - ResearchSPAce
About indexes which were identified in the inter-crisis period, Laparra and Perez Eransus analyze a few characteristics of unemployed people in Denmark, Spain, France and the United Kingdom in the years of and The chart that follows presents data according to some variables:. The data presented by the chart enables multiple reviews. Amongst them, it is noted that, France excluded, unemployment has affected men more than it has affected women in the period between and It is noted that the loss of jobs has affected all ages, but it is more intense in a specific age range.
As for differentiation between national and foreign populations, unemployment has affected, mostly, both. However, as for the situation of foreigners in all four countries, it is important to point out that, in Denmark and France, there was a greater impact of unemployment. According to Laparra and Perez Eransus , when the economic crisis in Europe began, one in every three people was entirely unemployed and had been in this situation for over a year. Some of the last data on unemployment, disclosed by Eurostat , show that Greece and Spain have the highest unemployment rates in Europe.
In this context, it is possible to question the impact of the crisis on the working population, especially if considering what was identified in relation to all three educational levels presented on Chart 1. The fact that unemployment affects young people more deeply has been the main justification for the re definition of all necessary qualifications for entering the work market and, specifically, in the European educational structure in face of the demands for a global and nomadic worker.
What has been much debated is that the training of the worker in Europe will require deeper knowledge and new skills. The confirmation for this was a greater incentive for the elaboration of attempts to implement the Europe Strategy , a program inserted in the European Commission agenda for growth and employment policies. Amongst different programs, in the years following , those that aim vocational training of young people and adults stand out in both public institutions and business institutions.
In the context of globalization, knowledge is considered an input. The Bologna Process was signed in the city of Bologna in , during an assembly of Education Ministers from a few European countries. Confirming on the intentions of the reform, Morgado , p. The Implementation Report of Bologna declares that, in the past three years, 47 countries and more than 4.
Although not all countries and institutions have joined the Process, what was imposed in this context, according to Catani , was a character of uniformization, opposed to the feature of organizational diversity which was always a strong characteristic of European universities throughout the centuries. Amongst other prerogatives pointed out in the document, according to Dias Sobrinho , a compatible system of titles and degrees was adopted, with a diploma acknowledged in the member countries, which was possible with the cumulation of credits obtained internationally and validated by a common system of credits ECTS — European Credit Transfer System.
This credit system aims the cumulation and transfer of credits by fulfilling a predetermined workload in a study program. The ECTS serve, also, as a reference for the recognition of titles acquired in the European countries that joined the Treaty. In the context of the European higher learning reform, some curriculums have been formatted from the definition of general and specific skills, established by a model known as Tuning Educational Structures in Europe.
The goals, in a general or specific level, must be expressed in accordance with skills, which allow training for a specific professional practice in the First Cycle — Graduation or for specialization and investigation. Second Cycle — Post-graduation. By establishing skills, the project predicts that the contents must be arranged in order to meet, not only training, but also didactic strategies which will favor learning, answering what is requested for professional profiles.
Aboites , p. These are the objectives that express the training for the first cycle or for the second cycle. It would be about connecting the structure of knowledge of a school discipline content analysis , with the formative demands or the vocational demands necessity analysis and both aspects will result in a determined sequence of learning. Once more, the author exhibits subordination of higher education to the market labor by adapting to this title structure, expressing the results of skill learning.
For this reason, the European Commissionhas established, by the use of documents, the necessary skills for a training process that is able to guarantee inclusion of young people in the world of employment. The curriculums of some basic and higher learning institutions of the European Union members have been altered so as to contemplate those skills. This fact reinforces the need of flexibilization by the individual and the search for continuous training in order to maintain their employability.
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Especially, the content learned in the university has been oriented by labor market demands, while the responsibility for the acquisition of skills demanded by the labor market is transferred to the individual. According to Dias Sobrinho , p. The labor market requires multiple and flexible social and professional attitudes and abilities coupled with technical and scientific skills which can handle more general aspects of knowledge and professional performance and, also, more specific and changeable aspects. Oliveira , p. Considering that there is a concern to reach a marketing demand, the role of the teacher as the conductor of the learning process in this structure is questioned,the process would be oriented for professional specialized training, at times uncritical and amputated, at the expense of uncommitted research and the need of individual students for knowledge then available.
Despitethe challenges faced by the reform of higher education in Europe, positive changes can be observed. The Bologna Implementation Report brings advancements by then registered at the European space of university cooperation. With regards to quality, there are strong evidences that quality has been encouraged and that some institutions of higher learning have been developing their own strategies to guarantee quality. There are a number of authors that, despite their critical stance, still consider some virtues in the model. However, the author highlights that the dangers and risks warned by those who are against the focus on skill must not be disregarded or forgotten.
Regarding training and the applicability of acquired knowledge in several contexts, the Bologna Implementaton Report must be considered when it states that most countries value student-focused learning, despite contemplating that there is a group that does not consider this aspect even in legislation and, in this sense, going forward is needed. Thus, it is relevant to consider Dias Sobrinho words , p. The author words arouse a reflection on social, economic and cultural differences present in the countries of the bloc.
How is it possible to consider that training in a country is equivalent to training in another country in terms of time, quality, career and even financial return, when it is known that skills which were learned at school or even at the university are not useful out of the school space? The author warns of the danger of modifying qualitatively the way of learning and teaching. So, it is understood that initial education should prepare the citizen for a full life and provide them with a minimum cultural capital so as to make it possible for them to integrate with society.
School should assure fundamental learning for an active citizen participation, integrated in collective life. Basic skills for this training should, therefore, be contemplated in subjects and disciplines of the early years, in a transversal way in each one of them to a greater or lesser extent. This has brought accumulation of tasks and frustration for the faculty, because school should focus on assuring essential learning, consideringbasic skills that are imperative for effective participation in public life and the employment world, without the risk of exclusion.
However, school has not been able to deal with that. Moreover, it has been questioned whether the fact that the requirement for individuals to acquire key skills or basic skills does not contemplate the guarantee that all citizens will be able to equitably reach the levels of skill for life.
As for the objectives of skills in higher learning, it is important to point out that skills have placed the university at the service of the labor market, controlled by the capital.https://belgacar.com/components/enlever/iphone-remote-surveillance.php
The The Crisis In Teacher Education: A European Concern?
Despite criticism, the Bologna Implementation Report considers the relation between employment and qualification a positive aspect. Therefore, the contents expressed in skills and linked to professional profiles presume utility knowledge, that is, to be used in an specific context:. Since it does not hide its mentors, a flexible labor market is desired in the globalized society: training individuals who possess active skills to adapt to an ever-changing work future, in a lifelong process of learning.
The efforts for the implementation of the higher learning reform project in Europe have, in their core, the necessity to ensure the survival of European countries in the global market dynamics, raising their competitiveness and disseminating European higher education and its programs DIAS SOBRINHO, In other words, it is a strategy to prepare the grounds on which to compete. Since the beginning of the implantation of the Process, 15 years have gone by. Amidst the controversy on the proposed model, official reports and other publications confirm that the Bologna Process has advanced in Europe in order to allow homogenization of higher education in the continent, ensuring mobility of students and professionals in the bloc and in the global market.
It must be pointed out that the EU still debates on the cohesion of curriculums and the mutual recognition of contents between institutions or the harmonization of higher learning. ZGAGA, However, there is still opposition and several difficulties which have been faced by institutions, students and faculty, in several countries.
Moreover, some authors question if education, whilst a public asset, has been neglected in the Bologna Process and these authors criticize the Process, joining associations of students.
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In this sense, Lima, Azevedo e Catani , p. In addition, there are records of poor management practices that put the Process at risk and bring more opposition. It mentions Austria as a good example of implementation of the Bologna model, although it shows some practical ideological problems. Despite that, the Bologna Implementation Report states that progress has been made since in the implementation of ECTS, especially with regards to credit transfers to other institutions, which meets the goals of the program to increase mobility in the European space.
All in all, the educational reform in Europe is a reason for much controversy. It is a true consensus that there is still much to do. The Bologna Implementation Report itself recognizes that need and explains that there are still efforts from the bloc countries to search for a sole objective, but in distinct rhythms. The document also highlights the need to reinforce the bases of the Bologna Process through participation of politicians, faculty and students that are active in the European education space, which would be reasonable. Still, it is predictable that challenges are strongly imposed, because of the cultural diversity, the social and historical conditions and the changes that illustrate the globalized world scenario.
By reflecting on transformations inherent to global capitalism, it is possible to understand that the dynamics of production restructuring has strongly modified work processes, as well as the strategies of work training and the dissemination of knowledge. It has been considered that the guarantee of competitiveness in capitalist countries in the global market push them to invest in technology development by making use of knowledge as a fundamental input for the expansion of their lucrative activities.
In this area of dispute, Europe has not hesitated to create an European space of knowledge and has implemented an extensive higher learning reform, known as Bologna Process, which has been taking worldwide proportions and has been raising various opinions. It is noted that there are institutional difficulties in the State-Nations that have joined the Process and it was noted that universities, although with some resistance, have followed the proposed model, by favoring in their curriculums the development and the acquisition of general and specific skills, according to what professional profiles in the labor market dictate.
It is questioned, though, that by directing the training of new professionals based on the proposed model, the university subordinates itself to market requirements, which nullifies and amputates holistic training, which by its turn prepares the citizen for an active participation in collective life. It follows from what was exposed that the Bologna model, beyond the difficulties that are presented in face of institutions and students in terms of recognition of credits and titles, access and mobility, demands efforts to legitimize acquired skills.
The possession of skills is established by the credit system, as an indicator of learning, and represents a global vision on what is the professional training of the individual.